The early stone phase

Sense of Humour

Bridges Long Mynd YHA, Bridges, Ratlinghope, Shrewsbury, Shropshire

Jerusalem Farm, Jerusalem Lane, Booth, Halifax, West Yorkshire

Elizabeth I (1558-1603)

The Heel Stone, Slaughter Stone and Avenue

Burnbake Campsite, Rempstone, Corfe Castle, Wareham, Dorset

Waterside House Campsite, Howtown Road, Pooley Bridge, Penrith, Cumbria

La Valette Farm, Sark, Channel Islands

Henry's Campsite, Caerthillian Farm, The Lizard, Helston, Cornwall

Terms of Endearment

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Hadrian's Wall Campsite, Melkridge Tilery, nr Haltwhistle, Northumberland

History of Stonehenge

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Stone handaxe
THIS small handaxe is one of the most beautiful in the British Museum. It is made from quartz with attractive amethyst banding, a difficult material from which to make tools because it is extremely hard. The toolmaker would have had to hit with considerable force and accuracy to remove flakes. Such a high degree of difficulty makes the thin, symmetrical shape of this piece a masterpiece of the toolmakers’ art.
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William I (1066-87)

Born in 1028, William was the elder of two illegitimate sons born to Arlette of Falaise and Duke Robert I of Normandy (d. 1035). He grew up in a murderous atmosphere, protected by his determined mother, but by the age of 15 was strong enough to begin his own rule. William soon proved a vigorous soldier, defeating rebels to enforce his rule on Normandy; his methods were simple, often brutal, always effective.
Normans and Plantagenets

William I had won a huge gamble, and England was his prize. His followers scooped the rewards, taking over lands from defeated and dispossessed English nobles. William prescribed a government on England that in some ways went further than anything to be found in Normandy. The common people were still able to invoke customary laws, but in great matters such as landholding, taxation and military organization, the Normans imposed their own system.
Harold II (1066)

Edward’s Norman allies had urged him to make Duke William of Normandy his heir, and William was quick to claim the English Crown, with the backing of the Pope in Rome. In England, both the witan (king’s noble council) and Church supported Harold of Wessex.
Harold I to Edward the Confessor (1035-66)

Harold 1 (1035-40) Cnut died at Shaftesbury, and was buried at Winchester. ‘The illustrious king’ of The Anglo- Saxon Chronicle had intended his son Harthacnut (whose mother was Queen Emma) to succeed him. But with Harthacnut away in Denmark, his half-brother Harold Harefoot (born in 1017) made himself king at Oxford. Harold I’s reign has been described as ‘a jackal-time in which packs of scavengers tore at the carcass of Cnut’s empire and savaged each other’.
Ethelred II Unraed to Cnut: 978-1035

‘This year [991 ] was Ipswich ravaged, and after that was Byrhtnoth the Ealdorman slain at Maldon ... and it was decreed that tribute should be given to the Danes, on account of the great terror which they cause.’

The Anglo-Saxon Chroniclе
Edward the Elder то Edward the Martyr: 899-978

Edward the Elder (899-925) Edward the Elder (born c. 870) consoli¬dated Alfred’s kingdom, with the help of his elder sister, Aethelflaed. She married the king of Mercia and seems to have ruled that Midlands kingdom from 910 until her death in 917. Together, Edward and Aethelflaed inflicted a series of defeats on the Vikings. A renowned soldier, Edward was also keen to govern well; he ‘used books frequently’ and improved the coinage. On his death in 925, his son Athelstan (born c. 895) succeeded him.
Alfred the Great (871-99)

Alfred of Wessex, the only English ruler to hold the title ‘Great’, played a unique role in British history. Outstanding among Anglo-Saxon monarchs, he laid the foundations for the English kingdom as it existed into the Middle Ages.
Anglo-Saxon Monarchs

The British Monarchy Began in an historical landscape very différent from our experience. Although the land’s geography and some of its place names may be the same, they belonged to a country that we would find unfamiliar. What we think of as the United Kingdom is a recent création, in historical terms.

The power and functions of the monarch have never ceased to evolve, and rules of succession have been flexed to suit the needs of the time or the demands of the ruler. The area, people and customs of the kingdom have also changed. So we cannot picture William the Conqueror wrangling with Parliament any more than we can imagine George IV leading his troops into battle.
Royal Realm

FROM ALFRED THE GREAT in the 9th century to Elizabeth II in the 21st, the throne of England has been occupied by 56 very varied men and women as kings or queens. The separate reigns of princes of Wales ended in 1284 when Wales was annexed to the English Crown, and from 1603 the royal line of Scotland merged with that of England. Since then one monarch has reigned over all the United Kingdom.